Chemotherapy covers a wide variety of therapy treatments types. Terms such as adjuvant, neoadjuvant, consolidation and palliative often add to the confusion surrounding chemotherapy.
Adjuvant chemotherapy: Chemotherapy given to destroy left-over (microscopic) cells that may be present after the known tumor is removed by surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy is given to prevent a possible cancer reoccurrence.
Consolidation chemotherapy: Chemotherapy given once a remission is achieved. The goal of this therapy is to sustain a remission. Consolidation chemotherapy may also be called intensification therapy. This term is commonly used in the treatment of acute leukemia’s.
First line chemotherapy: Chemotherapy that has, through research studies and clinical trials, been determined to have the best probability of treating a given cancer. This may also be called standard therapy
Induction chemotherapy: Chemotherapy given to induce a remission. This term is commonly used in the treatment of acute leukemia’s.
Maintenance chemotherapy: Chemotherapy given in lower doses to assist in prolonging a remission. Maintenance chemotherapy is used only for certain types of cancer, most commonly acute lymphocytic leukemia’s and acute promyelocytic leukemia’s.
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy: Chemotherapy given prior to the surgical procedure. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be given to attempt to shrink the cancer so that the surgical procedure may not need to be as extensive.
Palliative chemotherapy: Palliative is a type of chemotherapy that is given specifically to address symptom management without expecting to significantly reduce the cancer.
Second line chemotherapy: Chemotherapy that is given if a disease has not responded or reoccurred after first line chemotherapy. Second line chemotherapy has, through research studies and clinical trials, been determined to be effective in treating a given cancer that has not responded or reoccurred after standard chemotherapy. In some cases, this may also be referred to as salvage therapy.